Friday, December 23, 2011

(Cancer) Mutation: chemical carcinogens

Cancer pathogenesis is traceable to DNA mutations that impact cellular growth and metastasis. Substances that cause DNA mutations are referred to as mutagens, and mutagens that cause cancers are referred to as carcinogens. Particular substances have been associated with specific types of cancer. Cigarette smoking is associated with many types of cancer, and causes 90% associated with lung cancer. Prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers is related to mesothelioma.

Many mutagens are additionally carcinogens, but some carcinogens aren't mutagens. Alcohol is an example of a chemical carcinogen that isn't a mutagen. Such chemicals might promote cancers through stimulating the actual rate of cell division. Faster rates of replication simply leaves less time for repair enzymes to correct damaged DNA during DNA duplication, increasing the likelihood of the mutation.

Decades of research has demonstrated the hyperlink between tobacco use and cancer within the lung, larynx, head, neck, belly, bladder, kidney, oesophagus and pancreas. Cigarettes smoke contains over fifty recognized carcinogens, including nitrosamines and polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons. 

Indeed, lung cancer death rates in the usa have mirrored smoking patterns, with increases in smoking then dramatic increases in lung most cancers death rates and, more lately, decreases in smoking followed through decreases in lung cancer passing away rates in men. However, the amounts of smokers worldwide is still increasing, leading to what some organizations have referred to as the ''tobacco epidemic''.