Saturday, December 31, 2011

The Classification Cancer

Cancers are classified by the kind of cell that resembles the growth and, therefore, the tissue presumed to become the origin of the growth. These are the histology and also the location, respectively. Examples of common categories include:

  1. Carcinoma: Malignant tumors based on epithelial cells. This group represents the most typical cancers, including the common types of breast, prostate, lung and intestinal tract cancer.
  2. Sarcoma: Malignant tumors based on connective tissue, or mesenchymal tissue.
  3. Lymphoma and leukemia: Malignancies based on hematopoietic (blood-forming) tissue
  4. Germ cell tumor: Tumors based on totipotent cells. In adults usually found in the testicle as well as ovary; in fetuses, babies, and young children most often on the body midline, particularly at the end of the tailbone; in horses usually found at the poll (base from the skull).
  5. Blastic tumor or even blastoma: A tumor (generally malignant) which resembles a good immature or embryonic tissue. Several tumors are most common within children.

Friday, December 30, 2011

(Cancer) Screening

Testing for cancer is controversial in cases when it's not yet known if the actual test actually saves lives. The controversy arises when it's not clear if the advantages of screening outweigh the risks associated with follow-up diagnostic tests and most cancers treatments. For example: when testing for prostate cancer, the PSA test may detect small cancers that could never become life threatening, but once detected will result in treatment. 

This situation, called overdiagnosis, puts men in danger for complications from unnecessary treatment for example surgery or radiation. Follow up procedures accustomed to diagnose prostate cancer (prostate biopsy) could cause side effects, including bleeding as well as infection. Prostate cancer treatment could cause incontinence (inability to manage urine flow) and erection dysfunction (erections inadequate for sexual intercourse). Similarly, for breast most cancers, there have recently been criticisms that breast screening programs in certain countries cause more problems compared to they solve. This is because screening of women within the general population will result in a lot of women with false positive outcomes which require extensive follow-up research to exclude cancer, leading to using a high number-to-treat (or number-to-screen) to avoid or catch a single situation of breast cancer early.

Thursday, December 29, 2011

(Cancer) Chemoprevention

The idea that medications could be accustomed to prevent cancer is an appealing one, and many high-quality clinical trials support using such chemoprevention in defined conditions.

Daily use of tamoxifen, the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), usually for 5 years, has been demonstrated to lessen the risk of developing breasts cancer in high-risk women through about 50%. A recent study reported how the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene offers similar benefits to tamoxifen within preventing breast cancer in high-risk ladies, with a more favorable side-effect profile.

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Prevent Cancer: Vitamin

The theory that cancer can be prevented through vitamin supplementation is due to early observations correlating human condition with vitamin deficiency, such since pernicious anemia with vitamin B12 deficit, and scurvy with Vitamin Chemical deficiency. This has largely not been been shown to be the case with cancer, and vitamin supplementation is essentially not proving effective in avoiding cancer. The cancer-fighting components of food may also be proving to be more quite a few and varied than previously comprehended, so patients are increasingly being advised to eat fresh, unprocessed fruits and vegetables for maximal health improvements.

Epidemiological studies have shown in which low vitamin D status will be correlated to increased cancer chance. However, the results of such studies must be treated with caution, as they can not show whether a correlation between two factors ensures that one causes the other (''i. elizabeth. '' correlation does not indicate causation). The possibility that Vitamin D might drive back cancer has been contrasted with all the risk of malignancy from sunshine exposure. Since exposure to sunlight enhances natural human production regarding vitamin D, some cancer researchers have argued the potential deleterious malignant effects regarding sun exposure are far outweighed from the cancer-preventing effects of extra nutritional D synthesis in sun-exposed epidermis. In 2002, Dr. William T. Grant claimed that 23, 800 premature cancer deaths occur in the usa annually due to insufficient UVB coverage (apparently via vitamin N deficiency). This is more than 8, 800 deaths occurred coming from melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma, and so the overall effect of sun exposure could be beneficial. Another research group quotes that 50, 000–63, 000 individuals in america and 19, 000 - twenty-five, 000 in the UK perish prematurely from cancer annually as a result of insufficient vitamin D.

Tuesday, December 27, 2011

Prevent Cancer: Diet

The actual consensus on diet and cancer is that obesity boosts the risk of developing cancer. Particular dietary practices often clarify differences in cancer incidence in various countries (e. g. gastric cancer is more prevalent in Japan, while colon cancer is more common in the usa. In this example the previous consideration of Haplogroups are omitted).

Studies have shown that immigrants develop the danger of their new country, frequently within one generation, suggesting a considerable link between diet and most cancers. Whether reducing obesity in the population also reduces cancer occurrence is unknown.

Monday, December 26, 2011

Prevent Cancer: Modifiable ("lifestyle") risk factors

Most cancer risk factors are environment or lifestyle-related in nature, resulting in the claim that cancer is really a largely preventable disease. )#), physical inactivity (related to increased risk of colon, breasts, and possibly other cancers), and being obese / obese (associated along with colon, breast, endometrial, and perhaps other cancers).

Based upon epidemiologic evidence, it is now thought which avoiding excessive alcohol consumption may bring about reductions in risk of particular cancers; however, compared with cigarettes exposure, the magnitude of effect is actually modest or small and the effectiveness of evidence is often weaker.

Sunday, December 25, 2011

(Cancer) Other causes

Excepting the particular rare transmissions that occur with pregnancies in support of a marginal few organ bestower, cancer is generally not any transmissible disease. The main basis for this is tissue graft rejection due to MHC incompatibility.

In humans as well as other vertebrates, the immune system uses MHC antigens to be able to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" tissues because these antigens are different from one individual to another. When non-self antigens are came across, the immune system reacts contrary to the appropriate cell. Such reactions may drive back tumour cell engraftment by removing implanted cells.

Saturday, December 24, 2011

(Cancer) Viral or bacterial infection

Some cancers could be caused by infection with pathogens. Many cancers result from a viral infection; this is particularly true in animals such because birds, but also in people, as viruses are responsible with regard to 15% of human cancers globally. The main viruses associated along with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis W and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr computer virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus. 

Experimental and epidemiological data suggest a causative role for viruses and they seem to be the second most important danger factor for cancer development within humans, exceeded only by cigarettes usage. The mode of virally-induced tumors could be divided into two, ''acutely-transforming'' or even ''slowly-transforming''. In acutely transforming infections, the virus carries an overactive oncogene known as viral-oncogene (v-onc), and the infected cell is transformed the moment v-onc is expressed. 

Friday, December 23, 2011

(Cancer) Mutation: chemical carcinogens

Cancer pathogenesis is traceable to DNA mutations that impact cellular growth and metastasis. Substances that cause DNA mutations are referred to as mutagens, and mutagens that cause cancers are referred to as carcinogens. Particular substances have been associated with specific types of cancer. Cigarette smoking is associated with many types of cancer, and causes 90% associated with lung cancer. Prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers is related to mesothelioma.

Many mutagens are additionally carcinogens, but some carcinogens aren't mutagens. Alcohol is an example of a chemical carcinogen that isn't a mutagen. Such chemicals might promote cancers through stimulating the actual rate of cell division. Faster rates of replication simply leaves less time for repair enzymes to correct damaged DNA during DNA duplication, increasing the likelihood of the mutation.

Thursday, December 22, 2011


Cancer is usually a diverse class of diseases which differ widely into their causes and biology. Any affected individual, even plants, can acquire cancers. Nearly all known cancers crop up gradually, as errors build up from the cancer cell and its progeny (view mechanisms section for common sorts of errors).

Anything which replicates (your cells) will probabilistically endure errors (mutations). Unless error correction and prevention is properly executed, the errors will survive, and may very well be passed along to daughter solar cells. Normally, the body safeguards next to cancer via numerous methods, like: apoptosis, helper molecules (many DNA polymerases), possibly senescence, for example. 

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Cancer??What is it?

Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases are a group of cells display''''Uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits), invasion''''( intrusion and damage to Surrounding tissue), and Sometimes' '''metastasis (spread to other locations within the body via lymph or blood).

These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, and do not invade or metastasize.

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

The Origins of Cancer

Cancer begins in cells, which is the basic unit of life. Our body consists of various cell types. Some cells grow and divide with a useful control to make the body healthy. When old or damaged cells, the cell will be replaced with new cells.

But sometimes this process does not correspond to normal, the genetic material present in the cell (DNA) may be corrupted or changed. A mutation that gives a change in cell growth, when this happens the cells do not die as cells normally and the new one does not replace the dead cells. 

Tues These extra that can be grown in tissue becomes a tumor. Tumor growth here is a biological tissue that is not normal. Growth can become malignant (malignant) or benign (benign). A benign tumor is not cancerous, these tumors are easily removed surgically, and most do not grow anymore stelah removed and not spread to other limbs. 

Conversely, malignant tumors are cancer. Tumor cells can spread on nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body is called metastasis.

Monday, December 19, 2011

What is Cancer ???

Cancer is a disease of abnormal cell division without control and can spread to surrounding tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Malignant tumors are called cancer. Cancer has the potential to invade and destroy adjacent tissues and cause metastasis. According to the present concept of cancer is a disease gene.